Infection with certain viruses and bacteria. Certain viral and bacterial infections appear to increase the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Viruses linked to increased non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma risk include HIV and Epstein-Barr infection. Bacteria linked to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma include the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori.
Older age. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can occur at any age, but the risk increases with age. It’s most common in people 60 or over.
Stage IV. This is the most advanced stage of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer cells are in several portions of one or more organs and tissues. Stage IV non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma may also affect other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs or bones.
- A means that you don’t have any significant symptoms as a result of the cancer.
- B indicates that you may have significant signs and symptoms, such as a persistent fever, unintended weight loss or severe night sweats.
Bone marrow stem cell
Bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, involves using high doses of chemotherapy and radiation to suppress your bone marrow. Then healthy bone marrow stem cells from your body or from a donor are infused into your blood where they travel to your bones and rebuild your bone marrow.
People who undergo bone marrow transplant may be at increased risk of infection.
Biological therapy drugs help your body’s immune system fight cancer.
For example, one biological therapy called rituximab (Rituxan) is a type of monoclonal antibody that attaches to B cells and makes them more visible to the immune system, which can then attack. Rituximab lowers the number of B cells, including your healthy B cells, but your body produces new healthy B cells to replace these. The cancerous B cells are less likely to recur.
Also, a drug called ibrutinib (Imbruvica) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for some people undergoing treatment for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Radioimmunotherapy drugs are made of monoclonal antibodies that carry radioactive isotopes. This allows the antibody to attach to cancer cells and deliver radiation directly to the cells. An example of a radioimmunotherapy drug used to treat non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin).